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Italy five characteristics of stone mining industry

Italy is the world center stone, Italian stone mining has a long history and advanced mining technology. After nearly a century of development, mining and processing of advanced technology and high quality Italian marble brand enjoyed making " stone kingdom" reputation in the world. Italy Brescia region rich in beige marble, old beige marble mining began as early as 300 years ago, also has a new beige marble dating back 100 years of history. Carica marble mining area first began in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, there were more than 100 years ago, the main production of white Carrara marble.

the Brescia region is divided into old and new beige marble mine in two varieties, new beige mine is about 40 to 50 miles, mines largest mining area of ​​Approximately 12,000 m, large -scale mining blocks normally produced 5000m per year, usually the annual production of small mines is 3000m, Beige whole new mines with an annual output of about 150,000 m variety of blocks.

Beige old mining area has been 300 years of mining history. There are about 20 to 30 mining companies. Mines produce 150,000 m varieties of mixed blocks. Mining model with the new beige mines, mines the same features and characteristics and business.

Canara marble areas above 500m thickness of the ore body, the size of the area has more than 150 miles, located in the three valleys, all with full- swing mining methods, with an annual output blocks 1000000 T (approximately 300,000 m).

Our experts in these areas through the marble mine tours and exchanges with Italian stone mining expert, inspired in many aspects of mechanized mining, mining methods, mining efficiency, resource utilization and production safety, we have a lot of experience are worth learning from.

First, mining equipment, advanced, fully mechanized mining, full production rate.

New beige largest mine mine about 40 to 50 existing mines , mine has 8 to 10 workers , small mines only 5 workers per capita monthly blocks is 50 ~ 70m ³; comprehensive variety of blocks of a block rate half of 15% to 20% of the ore is not blocks rate of 5% to 10% lower at 20 %. The mine stope use almost every hoisting crane mast, mast Chang biggest boom 70 yards long, lifting capacity 50T. Mine open pit and sunken into the hillside in two open-air mining method to combine full- sawing wire saw process for mining arm saws mainly, but also the use of vehicle-mounted drilling machine for shaping the stone steps and blocks , mine rarely directly with chain saw , the use of leased ways . Each mine mining equipment configuration usually includes: a mast crane, 1 loader, 1 320 or more (usually CAT340, 345 and 365 or Komatsu 450) with rock excavator bucket, 3 to 4 sets of wire saw, 1 fixed blocks shaping machine.

In Carrara mine all mine are equipped with more than one based on exploitation even arm saws , diamond wire saw , two cutting equipment joint operations, with more than Carter or Volvo, Komatsu fork hanging from the mast installed with Taiwan , lifting , handling, loading and unloading trucks .

Italy is not only the use of advanced mining equipment, mining equipment manufacturers worldwide are leading. Mining and stone processing equipment manufacturing companies and products are well-known in the world, Benetti, Pellegrini, Pedrini, Fantini other company's products throughout the world, mining and processing equipment manufacturing technology to lead the world trend.

Italian marble mining equipment is called sophisticated, the number of workers actually produces very little surface mining did not see a great number of people, one person-years average production block 500m, labor productivity among the highest in the world. Efficient mining output thanks to advanced technology and equipment, also benefited from the overall production workers skilled labor skills, but thanks to the staff dedication and professionalism. Mine production workers in Italy are generalists. Both will operate mining equipment, lifting equipment and can operate even open can drive trucks, everyone's attitude is very serious, self-awareness is high. A high degree of automation equipment, a person can care multiple devices. After cutting equipment stops, workers continue to be loading operating titleholders handling. This is to provide for our domestic stone mines a useful reference , yielding to mine blocks , mechanized mining is the only way , advanced machinery and equipment is essential, colleagues and staff training focused on labor skills , and tap the potential of production workers , reduce labor costs.

Second, according to local conditions , with a variety of mining methods and mining methods

Canara in Brescia and mining can see a variety of mining methods. There are slopes open pit mining, open pit mining and cave mining depression. There are cranes explore ways to develop, transport development and road cars jointly developing. All mining methods are based on the orebody address pioneering features and terrain conditions, local conditions, rational planning and design.

Bear cut ore complex terrain conditions, the use of open pit slopes, explore ways to develop a single motor transport, car transport and also jointly developing with the mast crane. Orebody extends to the deep underground, open-pit mining methods using depression, using the mast crane transport development. Depression is characterized by open pit mine small range of mining , large seam thickness , small mining operations space , a single mast crane blocks to meet the needs of local waste rock lifting large if pit area not covered by a single mast crane stope range , you need to be equipped with multiple mast crane lifting to meet the needs basis .

After a large orebody dip ( inclination 35 º above ) mines mining methods commonly used bedding , large pieces of stone fell to face the bottom of the platform along the row of holes fairlead layer separation, wire saw cutting vertical separation along with the level of large bEDDING overturned after block of stone shaping . If the seam dip is bigger, but to use the three-dimensional shape of a parallelogram, beaded saws cutting plane separation, overturned on the side of the parallelogram surface dressing.

For the burial depth, rock stripping capacity, high cost open-pit mining, the ore body is difficult, and half will be used for underground mining - mining cave mining manner. Cave mining mines were mostly open-pit mining in advance a long time, then according to the veins, the veins instead track the implementation of the hole mining. There are also holes in the proven mining mountains under the premise of the Vein, taken directly from the hole by way of mining.

Way beyond the implementation of the hole to remove mining ore with ore address conditions also needs special cave mining equipment, such as a chain saw, and will have the use of diamond wire saw, and open up the arm with a chain saw is essential.

Cave Hill Mining has the following advantages: First, the best veins along the track towards mining, reducing the amount of peeling and stripping costs ; Second orebody good integrity , blocks rate, labor efficiency is high ; Third, protection of vegetation , a in four seasons, regardless of wind and rain are operating as usual . The biggest advantage is easy to understand the mountain cave mining or geological changes in the law, you can follow the best seam mining, the high price to get good quality blocks. Of course, the mining costs are high, the cost of mining in the hole is about 1.1 to 1.2 times the open-pit mining , mainly reflected in the choice of color is good and complete lode mining, avoid bad color and fractured parts, parts for fixing cracks the bolt reinforcement works.

Currently , Carrara marble mines 20% of the region to implement the hole mining, government is the need for environmental protection and environmental and scenic areas of Carrara remediation , require new marble mine cave mining methods must be approved, and to extend the mine life open pit mine expand the scope of open-pit mining will choose good veins when the abdomen is restricted to the mountains or deep hole mining track .

Third, all the mines are equipped with standardized construction and mining

In these two regions, all marble mine construction and mining activities are very standardized, but also for infrastructure very seriously. From the transport system to the power supply, water supply, from production platforms to the yard blocks, blocks divided into slag processing from all venues and facilities and production processes have been carefully planning and design, clear, orderly.

Using road transport to explore the mines, road width and slope steepness in strict accordance with the requirements of construction , mining major transport road asphalt laying on the ground , in the downhill and a sharp turn at the sign of the vehicle has warned that with the regular highway facilities and access requirements are identical.

Fully open pit mine slopes, steep terrain and then have to take the road to repair the stope, and the slope was very strict. There will never exceed the requirements of the road. Mining site relative height is large, complex terrain conditions mines, highway construction investment more, difficult road and then a big , will not have the slightest , in the creation of transport and mining conditions will not cut corners , but will not enlarge gun barbaric exploitation ways.

In the mining process, the step height and width of the order of operations in accordance with the design and propulsion direction are doing is in the mountain cave mining pit lane must be strictly enforced by the mining sequence on a step- to-bottom. Depression open pit mines , most use the mast crane transport development, as well as some mines using roads and crane joint development, installation location Select mast crane is very important, not only to take care of the crane coverage , but also take into account the long-term factor in the use of time , half of them are not installed on the advancing side of the edge to help . With the increase of mining deep, water catchment and drainage facilities to set up and functioning is also important, not because of the catchment affect production.

Fourth, the monitoring of technical innovation, sound and thoughtful facilities , production safety guaranteed

Italian stone mines in the implementation of large-scale mining safety under the protection of the premise. Of the two main producing world-famous marble mines, each mine regardless of size, in terms of both production safety attention, put safety first. Open pit mines left reasonably safe slope, step height based on the exploitation of mining equipment and lifting equipment the ability to determine , in each mining step edges , whether it is the end of the stairs or steps in advance , have a solid fence or block , prevent people falling casualties. Slope ashore and sweeping security platform designed to leave the platform, preventing the Rolling Stones on the bottom surface mining personnel and mechanical equipment damage.

The top of the slope or the slope of loose rock weathering distribution, it is necessary to take measures to reinforce these areas, or buried piles, or masonry base Weir, playing anchor, spraying, etc. slope treatment.

Have taken the hazards that exist in the production process protection measures, such as diamond wire saw broken rope injury accident prone, it will set the anti-fence operations in peripheral areas, beaded top rope decoration protective tape to prevent broken rope wounding.

Cave mining marble mine , keep the air fresh oxygen inside the cave is very important or sufficient mining operations in the hole , so you must install adequate ventilation pipes and adequate lighting facilities , mining mountain cave cavern space is large, and some particularly large the cavern height of tens of meters , free face -span roof ten meters or more, and even then the hole indoor installation mast crane . This is the stone and other minerals mine cave mining methods are an important difference and mining conditions. Despite Marble Cave Mining in tracking the best quality and most complete segment blocks, integrity better than open-pit mining or block segment, but still leave the required security pillar to resist the pressure plate formation, prevention cavern roof collapse. For help and roof cave interior edges appear jointed lots more developed, but also for playing for reinforcement anchor, anchor depending on the density of the rock is calculated to determine the degree of fragmentation.

Italian stone mine production safety in production facilities guarantees security, but also on factors affecting the safety analysis and monitoring, early warning mechanisms. Especially for open-pit mining pit lane slope and the hole edges to help, to stress the roof track and monitor the implementation of the annual uninterrupted, timely grasp of rock force changes to master the force of rock deformation limit parameter values ​​Once to stress monitoring when approaching the cordon trends, early warning, evacuation or remediation decisions made ​​Discontinued as soon as possible. Also uses a ground -based radar interferometry, for the entire range of the stope to provide accurate and comprehensive monitoring.

Italian marble mine safety monitoring technology is worth learning, mining and standardization will improve the safety level of protection for our stone mines, to help achieve security standardization.

Five advantages, recycling, adequate protection of natural and cultural resources

Mine in Brescia and Carrara marble blocks almost all mining mines, in line with the processing of a variety of stone, blocks of various shapes to be classified in different blocks with different specifications sell for different stone products.

The main measure of the rate of stone mines are blocks , blocks a lot of factors that affect the rate of ore , the main geological factors, such as jointed , stain color line , weathering, karst and the impact of other mineralization , but also mining technology, impact of mining methods, mining technology , equipment, etc. . In Italy, the mining industry a variety of factors, such as the decision of the same geological conditions under orebody, the higher the yield of their blocks.

Remove the blocks, the mining process a large number do not meet the requirements of rubble stone produced utilization gravel mine called a major issue. Italian marble mining in general did not see a gravel field, see the gravel crushing and screening equipment at each mine will be all mine gravel are processed into various particle sizes of gravel, sell them to the appropriate industry sector utilization.

Beige marble Brescia region whose lithology is limestone, cement and lime manufacturing high-quality raw materials in the construction of a large cement plant near the mines , gravel, stone mines produced in the surface layer of weathered rock and stripped down the mining process are cement factory use into the wider use of cement . In Carrara mines, gravel powders sold after processing plants, to use as a chemical additive, as well as some gravel sold to cement works, directly as concrete aggregate.

Italians take full advantage of marble mining history and advanced mining technology , mining landscape River mine facilities , marble thematic tourism , mines each year tourists from all over the world flocked to visit the one hand, the promotion of the Italian marble quarrying history and culture ; the other hand to bring considerable local tourism revenue . Italian marble mines have been to people who will be visited wisdom and Italian history and culture impressed by the Italians put the country's natural resources and human resources and technological advantages stone mining, processing, and applications to the limit, is the name of in fact, the symbol " marble kingdom ."
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